Venous thrombosis occurs with deadlock thrombus (blood clot) in a vein. Surface veins can be affected and it is called superficial thrombophlebitis or deep vein and it is called deep vein thrombosis. Thrombosis is always accompanied by phlebitis (inflammation of a vein), and used expressions and thrombosis and thrombophlebitis. Thrombosis may result from coagulation disorders (disorders in blood clotting), or may point to yet undiscovered malignant disease.
Factors that may contribute to the occurrence of thrombosis are: damage of the inner layer of the vessel wall, blood stasis after surgery, oral contraceptives, prolonged sitting with legs down during the journey (e.g. Plane flight), which poses a risk to healthy people.
Symptoms of an acute disease develop for several hours or for 1 to 2 days. The course of the disease is usually limited, takes 1 to 2 weeks, and then the process of acute and soothes the pain is reduced. In the case of superficial thrombophlebitis, the affected vein can be felt under the fingers as thickened, hard, ribbon-like formation. It is a reflection of the inflammatory response and causes pain, tenderness, erythema and warmth.
Deep venous thrombosis may be asymptomatic or can also be revealed varying degrees of sensitivity, pain, erythema, swelling, heat, changes in skin color or prominent superficial veins. The sensitivity and pain occurs when standing and walking. Maximum pain occurs in bending the ankle with an outstretched knee or getting up with an outstretched foot is called Homan’s sign and it is essential to distinguish from ordinary muscle pain.
Surface thrombosis is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and physical examination, and thereby can usually distinguish acute arterial and deep venous obstruction (blockage). Acute deep thrombosis in more than 50% of cases cannot be diagnosed only on the basis of the clinical picture, nor are the Homan’s sign or edema. The diagnosis is confirmed by a noninvasive tests, or venography (show the flow of blood through the veins using contrast). If the thrombosis affected vein in the groin or pelvis it can be diagnosed with duplex ultrasonography. If not diagnosed deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can lead to death due to pulmonary embolism.
DVT is a benign disease, but can cause pulmonary embolism, which can lead to death or chronic venous insufficiency (insufficient function of the flow in veins). Surface thrombosis can also cause formation of pulmonary emboli but they will not be fatal.
Surface thrombosis does not require specific treatment except for relief of symptoms, warm compresses over the affected vein and taking an NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) against pain and calm inflammation. Antibiotics are not necessary, or it is required hospitalization. In deep vein thrombosis patient must be immediately hospitalized because it is necessary to prevent pulmonary embolism and chronic venous insufficiency.
Antibiotics are recommended only if it is present, and infection. When you reduce edema, the patient should wear elastic stockings while walking, to control edema that can occur during walking.